Alarm as 'super malaria' spreads in South East Asia

#1 Sep 23rd, 2017, 01:28
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#1
No mention of India yet, but a worrying trend of anti-malarial resistant mosquitos:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-41351160

Ed.
#2 Sep 23rd, 2017, 07:01
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Its not mosquitos I think but the animalia that employ them that evolve. However, research does show that mosquitos do vary their behavior according to changes in human behavior. But, the way medications are carelessly employed in India and elsewhere its only a matter of time...
#3 Sep 23rd, 2017, 14:10
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Indeed, it is the Malaria itself that has become resistant to the available treatments.

The routine prescribing of antibiotics everywhere, even for animals, is already having a downside with super resistant viruses mutating.

Ed.
#4 Sep 23rd, 2017, 14:22
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I think pharma companies are to be blamed. In India in some cases the doctors prescribe the malaria medicines before asking the patient to do the blood tests to confirm if they are having malaria. Pharma companies incentivize doctors so that they promote their medicines.
#5 Sep 23rd, 2017, 15:14
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Aarosh, that is actually correct. It's a while since I researched this, but authorities say to treat malaria as a medical emergency and, when suspected, give drugs immediately and before test results.

There may be other factors too, such as maybe suspecting it too easily (not easy to tell from flu, etc, in early stages, though) and prescribing single medicines which create resistance more easily than currently recommended combos.

There is probably so much malaria in the world that the organisms get plenty of practice. A few unneeded doses won't make much difference.

Actually... How could it? If person without malaria takes meds, there is no malaria there to practise resistance.
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#6 Sep 23rd, 2017, 15:31
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Quote:
Originally Posted by aarosh View Post In India in some cases the doctors prescribe the malaria medicines before asking the patient to do the blood tests to confirm if they are having malaria. Pharma companies incentivize doctors so that they promote their medicines.
If there is no malaria, there will be no resistance, so it does not matter whether one gives the medicine before or after test.

Resistance is the mutation of malaria parasite that happens when some parasite die but some fight the drug and mutate into resistant parasite, which then infects the mosquitoes and then humans. This could happen due to parasite inbuilt mechanism helped by poor drug administration or drug use without proper combinations etc.

Parasites will win the fight eventually, that is certain.
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#7 Sep 23rd, 2017, 15:37
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Agree to both Nick's and jituji's view point.

Just wondering what would happen if a person not having malaria takes the medicine and the malaria mosquito bites the person.

Not sure if I am making sense, may be my mind is trying to recall what happened in my past life.
#8 Sep 23rd, 2017, 15:52
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Quote:
Originally Posted by aarosh View Post Just wondering what would happen if a person not having malaria takes the medicine and the malaria mosquito bites the person.
This is where the tables turn in my view. As per my understanding, and I may be wrong, if one has taken the drug, there is a period for half life, then 2 and more half life until the drug is completely out of the body. When there is not enough drug, the parasite may have more chances of developing resistance.
#9 Sep 23rd, 2017, 17:21
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Mr Darwin he say:
random mutations occur from time to time in a population, very occasionally factors in the environment (e.g. drugs in the bloodstream) will give some advantage to the mutated organisms and they will survive preferentially ("natural selection").
Mr Lamarck and Mr Lyshenko said (in effect) that mutations occurred in response to factors in the environment - it is widely accepted that Messrs L&L were wrong.

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#10 Sep 23rd, 2017, 19:17
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Agreed. So, say, after a course of anti-malarials, there is period when, if bitten, there may not be enough strength to kill the parasite, but the parasite may be helped to acquire resistance.

It is just... not a perfect world!
#11 Sep 23rd, 2017, 22:32
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Twas ever thus. All he gutters full of water, never cleaned, sprayed sporadically, and you wonder why you might be bitten. The usual remedies so oft spoken of here, with a fan, but that depends on the power to be on.

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#12 Sep 24th, 2017, 16:35
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#12
Quote:
Originally Posted by Nick-H View Post Agreed. So, say, after a course of anti-malarials, there is period when, if bitten, there may not be enough strength to kill the parasite, but the parasite may be helped to acquire resistance.

It is just... not a perfect world!
... hmmm - exactly the opposite of what I was trying to say!
The trouble is that Lamarckism (the inheritance of acquired characteristics) seems as if it ought to be right....

AndyD 8-)
#13 Sep 24th, 2017, 22:27
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Quote:
Originally Posted by a_f_d View Post ... hmmm - exactly the opposite of what I was trying to say!
Oh, ok. I expect you were right.
#14 Sep 24th, 2017, 23:19
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#14
Quote:
Originally Posted by a_f_d View Post Mr Darwin he say:
random mutations occur from time to time in a population, very occasionally factors in the environment (e.g. drugs in the bloodstream) will give some advantage to the mutated organisms and they will survive preferentially ("natural selection").
Mr Lamarck and Mr Lyshenko said (in effect) that mutations occurred in response to factors in the environment - it is widely accepted that Messrs L&L were wrong.
Wow, you are talking of time a couple of centuries ago when environmental factors meant using one muscle more than others and stuff like that, and Darwin and others had no idea what genes are. Everything has changed since then, the environment itself has been completely altered with introduction of newly created stuff into environment at a large scale.

Read about Epigenetics, and many new research as to how environment is being found to be ever more important factors in gene mutation. This is specially true at microbes level. Read about researches done by people like Michael Skinner like This one.

From the link;

Quote:
Washington State University researchers say environmental factors are having an underappreciated effect on the course of disease and evolution by prompting genetic mutations through epigenetics, a process by which genes are turned on and off independent of an organism's DNA sequence.
Quote:
"The ability of environmental factors to promote epigenetic inheritance that subsequently promotes genetic mutations is a significant advance in our understanding of how the environment impacts disease and evolution," they write.

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